Plastic Consumption: Understanding Its Global Impact and Challenges

23 Jan, 2024

In today’s world, plastic has become synonymous with convenience, finding its way into nearly every aspect of our lives, from packaging our food to constructing our vehicles. However, this widespread plastic consumption carries significant environmental and health consequences, making it a pressing issue.

The problem arises from the versatility, lightness, and durability of plastic, making it a preferred material across various industries. Yet, this convenience comes at the cost of environmental damage, including pollution of aquatic ecosystems and greenhouse gas emissions during production. Moreover, inadequate waste management results in plastic waste accumulating in landfills and harming wildlife.

Understanding why we heavily rely on plastic, its prevalence globally and in Europe, the types commonly used, and the current state of waste management is essential. This post will explore these facets, highlighting the urgency of reevaluating our plastic consumption and adopting more sustainable alternatives.

Why is Plastic So Widely Used?

While it may appear self-evident, understanding why we heavily rely on plastics and the challenges in disposing of them is crucial. Recognizing these two key reasons is important because it helps in identifying effective strategies to reduce reliance on plastics and improve waste management. The widespread use of plastics is largely attributed to two primary factors:

1. Versatility and Cost-effectiveness
Plastic’s versatility is unmatched. It can be moulded into almost any shape, catering to a myriad of applications, making it indispensable in various industries. Moreover, its cost-effectiveness, when compared to alternative materials, solidifies its appeal for both manufacturers and consumers. It is this versatility that has led to a staggering global production of over 300 million tonnes of plastic every year.

2. Benefits in Daily Life
In daily life, the benefits of plastic are undeniable. Its durability and lightweight nature make it essential for packaging, preserving food, and securing the safety of medical supplies. In some cases, there is no viable alternative that offers the same benefits, especially in terms of hygiene and preservation.

European plastics production evolution. Source: Plastics Europe.

Global and European Overview of Plastic Usage

The global and European landscapes of plastic usage offer a window into the vast, complex world of this material’s production and consumption. As we dive deeper into this topic, we explore two critical aspects: the sectors that contribute most to plastic consumption and the alarming statistics that illustrate the magnitude of plastic production and waste.

Packaging and Beyond

Packaging, the largest sector for plastic consumption, accounts for a significant portion of the millions of tonnes produced annually worldwide. The situation in Europe mirrors this trend, with additional substantial consumption in the automotive and construction industries. This widespread usage leads to an alarming accumulation of plastic waste, impacting marine life and human health, particularly as a large quantity of this waste ends up in the oceans.


The global scale of plastic production is staggering, with over 400 million tonnes produced each year – a figure that is on the rise. This high level of production results in a substantial amount of plastic waste, a concerning portion of which is not adequately managed or recycled. These statistics highlight the urgent need for effective waste management solutions and alternatives to current plastic usage practices.

Distribution of the global plastics use by application. Source: Plastics Europe.

Types of Plastics Consumed and Their Applications

The production of plastics, depend on the demand for plastics, and has a fundamental impact on our world. While these plastics have made significant contributions to convenience and safety, they also contribute substantially to global plastic waste. The challenge lies in balancing the benefits they offer with the environmental impact they create.

Distribution of European plastics production by type. Source: Plastics Europe.

Common Plastics and Their Uses

Delving into the types of plastics commonly used, we find PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate), HDPE (High-Density Polyethylene), and PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) at the forefront. PET is widely used in water and soda bottles due to its clarity and strength. HDPE, recognized for its durability and flexibility, is found in items like grocery bags and milk jugs. PVC, known for its durability and resistance to wear, has applications in pipes, medical equipment, and more.

These plastics are chosen for specific applications based on their unique properties. PET and HDPE are favoured in the packaging industry for their strength and flexibility. They keep food safe and maintain the integrity of the product. PVC’s robust nature makes it ideal for construction and medical applications where longevity and safety are paramount.

European plastics demand by application and type. Source: Plastics Europe.

The Dangers of Plastic Pollution: Beyond Environmental Impact

Annual plastics use (primary vs secondary). Source: OECD

Plastic waste and its end-of-life fates. Source: OECD

While recycling technologies have advanced, only a small portion of global plastic waste is made from recycled material. This is primarily due to the complexity and cost of the recycling process, which varies significantly across different types of plastics. Many plastics are not recyclable, and those that are often lose quality in the process, making them less appealing for manufacturers.

Additionally, inadequate recycling infrastructure, especially in developing countries, means much plastic waste isn’t processed for reuse. Consumer preference for new, often cheaper plastic materials over recycled ones also contributes to the problem. Finally, the lack of strong, cohesive global policies on plastic production and recycling further hinders the transition towards more recycled content in our plastic consumption.

These factors highlight the need for more efficient recycling processes, better infrastructure, a shift in consumer attitudes, and stronger policy support to increase the use of recycled materials in our daily plastic use.

End of Life of Plastics: A Critical Perspective

The plastic waste management scenario is grim. According to ‘PLASTICS – THE FACTS 2022,’ only a small percentage of the plastic waste generated is collected and recycled, with the majority ending up in landfills or the ocean. This mismanagement poses significant risks to the environment and human health.

The prevailing situation underscores the importance of reevaluating our approach to the end-of-life management of plastics. Effective strategies to minimise the environmental footprint of plastic waste are not just a necessity but an imperative for sustainable living and the well-being of our planet.

The Future Outlook on Plastic Consumption

As we stand at a pivotal moment in our environmental history, the future outlook on plastic consumption demands immediate attention and action. The relentless accumulation of plastic waste has triggered a global awakening, emphasising the need for a radical shift in how we produce, use, and dispose of plastics. This shift is not just a matter of choice but an essential step towards a more sustainable and responsible future. In this context, two key areas emerge as critical paths to progress:

Sustainable Alternatives

There’s a growing focus on developing sustainable alternatives to traditional plastics. Innovations in biodegradable materials and more efficient recycling processes are at the forefront of this movement. Science advances in this field are critical for reducing the environmental impact of plastic waste.

Role of Policy and Awareness

Efforts to reduce plastic consumption, particularly single-use plastics, are gaining momentum around the world. Governments and environmental organizations are working to implement effective policies and raise public awareness about the impact of plastic waste on the environment and human health. These initiatives are crucial for changing the current trajectory of plastic pollution.

Global plastics use, left axis, and average recycling rate, right axis, over the years. Source: OECD


As we reach a deeper understanding of the scope and impact of plastic consumption, the urgency to address this escalating crisis becomes increasingly clear. This is not just a complex challenge but a critical alarm signaling a need for immediate and transformative action. The issue of plastic consumption, with its multifaceted environmental, economic, and social considerations, requires us to not only acknowledge its scale but to urgently act upon it.

At Better Future Factory, we believe in leading by example. By embracing sustainable practices and advocating for innovative solutions, we are actively working to reduce the harmful impacts of plastic on our environment and health. Our journey is not just a professional mission; it’s a personal commitment to safeguarding our planet for future generations.

Now is the time to pivot towards more sustainable practices and to support innovative solutions that can mitigate the adverse effects of plastic on our environment and human health. Every step we take, no matter how small, contributes to a larger movement towards a sustainable future. We must act collectively and decisively. As consumers, businesses, and policymakers, the responsibility lies with us to initiate change. Let’s commit to making responsible choices, advocating for policy changes, and supporting eco-friendly initiatives. Together, we can create a significant impact. The path forward is clear; let’s embark on this journey towards sustainability with determination and hope.